Wikipedia models

Wikipedia Models Einträge in der Kategorie „Model“

Ein Model oder Mannequin ist eine Person, die sich aus künstlerischen oder kommerziellen Gründen abbilden oder filmen lässt oder etwas präsentiert, ohne​. Kategorie:Model. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Kategoriegraph. Oberkategorien. Model steht für: Model, Person, die sich zu kommerziellen oder künstlerischen Zwecken abbilden lässt; Model, Objekt in einer Softwarearchitektur, siehe Model​. Modelagentur – Wikipedia. Ein Model [ˈmoːdəl] ist eine Hohlform, mit der formbare Substanzen in eine bestimmte Form gebracht werden. Meist handelt es sich um zähflüssige oder.

Wikipedia models

Kategorie:Model. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Kategoriegraph. Oberkategorien. Modelagentur – Wikipedia. Models bezeichnet: die Mehrzahl von Model · Models (Band), australische Rockband; Models (Film), Dokudrama von Ulrich Seidl (). Dies ist eine.

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Ein Modell ist ein vereinfachtes Abbild der Wirklichkeit. Die Vereinfachung kann an sinnlich, vor und mathematischen Modellen und stellt daneben die Computersimulationen (computational models) als eigene Klasse von Modellen auf. Models Inc. ist ein Ableger der Serie Melrose Place. Hier spielten Amandas Mutter Hilary Michaels (gespielt von Linda Gray) und ihre Models die Hauptrollen​. Models bezeichnet: die Mehrzahl von Model · Models (Band), australische Rockband; Models (Film), Dokudrama von Ulrich Seidl (). Dies ist eine. Model Management ist eine Modelagentur in Hamburg, Deutschland. Die Agentur ist von Heidi Gross gegründet. Ehemalige und aktuelle Model der. IMG Models. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. IMG Models ist eine Modelagentur. Wikipedia models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case.

Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country.

For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars , men's magazines , such as Playboy , bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films.

However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear , bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered [ by whom? From models appeared topless. In the s, The Sun 's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections.

As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day. It was not until the s that modern glamour modelling was established.

During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void.

Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach.

Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors.

With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity.

Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work.

It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men.

However, the glamour market became saturated by the mids, and numerous men's magazines including Arena , Stuff and FHM in the United States went under.

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk , goth , fetish , [65] and tattooed [66] models or models with distinctive attributes.

This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences.

Billi Gordon , then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was [ when? Some models are employed for their body parts.

For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail -related products. They are frequently part of television commercials.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide.

Petite models are models that are under the typical height requirements that are expected of fashion models. Petite models typically work more often in commercial, and print modeling rather than runway modeling.

Petite models typically model shoes because their feet are of more common sizes compared to the average fashion model. Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique.

Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is greater due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted.

Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising; they can also in some cases be certified personal fitness trainers.

However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, and Germany that have fitness modelling agencies.

While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models.

There are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modelling or getting fit and in shape. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards , and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photographic styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality.

Although gravure idols may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure idols may be as young as pre-teen age up to their early thirties.

In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials.

Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location. There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers.

The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers.

While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing.

This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media such as print, radio, and television ; however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls , at tradeshows , special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces.

They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events , but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right.

A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between and Trade show models work a trade show floorspace or booth, and represent a company to attendees.

Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space.

They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention.

They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product s and service s. And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event.

They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue.

It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party [ citation needed ].

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform.

They resemble live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing.

Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting a fashion show when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure.

The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing , figure painting , sculpture and photography , but almost any medium may be used.

Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration , its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models have become popular due to the widespread use of social media. They are models who gain their success as a result of the large number of followers they have on Instagram and other social media.

They should not be confused with established models such as Cara Delevingne and Gigi Hadid , who use Instagram to promote their traditional modelling careers, [79] although some models, such as Playboy model Lindsey Pelas , begin their modelling careers conventionally and subsequently become Instagram models.

Some models use Instagram success to develop their careers, such as Rosie Roff who worked as a fashion model before being discovered via Instagram and gaining work as a ring girl in American boxing.

In some cases, Instagram provides unsigned models with a platform to attract the attention of agencies and talent scouts. The Instagram model concept originated in the late s, when the boyfriends of fashion bloggers such as Rumi Neely and Chiara Ferragni began photographing their girlfriends in various outfits.

When choosing whom to employ, brands have become less concerned with the number of followers an influencer has and more focussed on their engagement marketing strategy.

Research indicates that 89 per cent of influencers use Instagram to promote themselves compared to 20 per cent using Twitter and 16 per cent using Facebook.

Some Instagram models have gained high-profile modelling jobs and become celebrities. Instagram model techniques and aesthetics have also been used in unconventional or parody profiles.

Instagram model Lil Miquela has blurred the line between reality and social media, amassing more than , followers without it being revealed whether she is real or computer-generated.

The account amassed 65, followers in a month, after which a reveal video posted to it had over , views. Some reports [96] suggest that a number of Instagram models obtain extra income by covertly working as prostitutes.

Websites accusing various models of this, often without reliable evidence, have increased in popularity recently, sometimes with the unintended effect of increasing their earnings.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Person employed to display, advertise and promote products, or to serve as a visual aid. This article is about the role a person may take as a model.

For other uses, see Model disambiguation. See also: Size zero. For the film, see Fashion Model. Main articles: Fashion show , Fashion week , and Runway fashion.

See also: Size zero and Female body shape. Main article: Plus-size model. Main article: Fit model. Main article: Glamour photography.

See also: Fitness and figure competition. See also: List of Japanese gravure idols. Main article: Promotional model. Main article: Spokesmodel.

Models are an Australian rock band formed in Melbourne in August They went into hiatus in An earlier song from the same album, " Barbados ", had peaked at No.

Johnny Crash on drums and percussion , and Sean Kelly on vocals and lead guitar. They recorded two tracks for Suicide records' Lethal Weapons label.

Johnny Crash on drums and percussion. However they rapidly reformed at the end of December when Ex- The Easybeats members, Harry Vanda and George Young , who were now record producers and songwriters, offered to cut some demos for them — [4] [6] Their second single, "Owe You Nothing" appeared in August Both singles were released on independent labels [5] [9] and did not chart on the Top 40 Australian singles chart according to the Kent Music Report.

In November , the Duffield, Ferrie, Friedenfelds and Kelly line-up released their first album, Alphabravocharliedeltaechofoxtrotgolf.

The group intended to record completely new material for their studio albums. Much of their earlier work was unreleased until , when Models Melbourne , a compilation album of live material, was released.

Models' early style was a spiky, distinctive blend of new wave, glam rock , dub and pop : which included Kelly's strangled singing voice, Duffield's virtuoso synthesiser performances he used the EMS Synthi AKS , and the band's cryptic, slightly gruesome, lyrics e.

Friedenfelds was replaced on drums by Mark Hough a. Buster Stiggs from New Zealand band The Swingers before recording commenced on their international label release.

The band went to England to record with producer, Stephen Tayler producing. In June, demo sessions recorded earlier in Australia album so impressed the band that they were released as a 10" mini album, Cut Lunch July , which was produced by Tony Cohen and Models except one by Split Enz keyboard player Eddie Rayner.

Both albums helped widen their audience nationally, thanks to regular radio exposure on Triple J in Sydney and on community stations in other cities, as well as national TV exposure through their innovative music videos on programs such as the Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC-TV pop music show Countdown.

During , further line-up changes occurred with Ferrie and Hough leaving early in the year. The album was critically acclaimed and peaked at No.

Models' Media was released in December and peaked at No. In , the Thank You Goodnight Tour was conducted but the pressures of ten years of touring, as well as financial troubles, hastened the break-up of Models, which was announced in June , [4] however in , Kelly disputed the break-up: [25].

I remember in the late '80s I noticed James' [Freud] Record Company put out a press release that we'd split up, which was completely inaccurate.

Because we had so many individuals in the group, we've always been able to sustain it in one form or another - and fortunately for me they've always let me be involved.

As long as I'm there, we get to claim that continuity. Models' extended live exposure ensured that they stayed in the public eye when other contemporaries had been forgotten: the band's later work remained popular on radio throughout the s; this, coupled with critical acclaim and cult appeal of earlier work, re-stimulated interest in their work in the latter half of that decade.

The band reformed for a few gigs in ; in their rarities album Melbourne was released. Matthews provided a No. Duffield wrote music including the theme for the Australian children's TV series, Round the Twist ; and in composed all music and sound effects for the TV comedy, Kick.

Mason has composed soundtracks for many feature films and television series both locally and internationally.

Valentine later worked in children's TV, is a popular radio host on ABC Sydney and published a successful series of children's books. Price returned to New Zealand after stints with various Australian bands, and the world's first drum sample CD.

Wednesday formed Crashland and plays with German avant garde band Einstürzende Neubauten. Various versions of Models have reformed on several occasions for short tours, including in and in September Most flying model aircraft can be placed in one of three groups: free flight , control line and radio controlled.

Flying models can be built from scratch or from kits. Some kits take many hours to put together and some kits are almost ready to fly or ready to fly.

With elements similar to miniature wargaming , building models and architectural models , a plan-relief is a means of geographical representation in relief as a scale model for military use, to visualise building projects on fortifications or campaigns involving fortifications.

Most hobbyists who build models of buildings do so as part of a diorama to enhance their other models, such as a model railroad or model war machines.

As a stand-alone hobby, building models are probably most popular among enthusiasts of construction toys such as Erector , Lego and K'Nex. Standard scales have not emerged in this hobby.

Model railroaders use railroad scales for their buildings: HO scale , OO scale , N scale , and O scale Lego builders use miniland scale and minifig scale and micro scale [note 1] Generally, the larger the building, the smaller the scale.

Model buildings are commonly made from plastic, foam, balsa wood or paper. Card models are published in the form of a book, and some models are manufactured like 3-D puzzles.

Professionally, building models are used by architects and salesmen. Architecture firms usually employ model makers or contract model making firms to make models of projects to sell their designs to builders and investors.

These models are traditionally hand-made, but advances in technology have turned the industry into a very high tech process than can involve Class IV laser cutters , five-axis CNC machines as well as rapid prototyping or 3D printing.

Typical scales are , , , , , , , etc. Typically found in scale and also called model house, model home or display house, this type of model is usually found in stately homes or specially designed houses.

Sometimes this kind of model is commissioned to mark a special date like an anniversary or the completion of the architecture, or these models might be used by salesmen selling homes in a new neighborhood.

Typically found in scale , most manufacturers of commercial vehicles and heavy equipment commission scale models made of die-cast metal as promotional items to give to prospective customers.

These are also popular children's toys and collectibles. Corgi also makes some models, as well as Dutch maker Tekno. Trucks are also found as diecast models in scale and injection moulded kits and children's toys in scale.

Recently some manufacturers have appeared in scale like Code 3. Although the British scale for 0 gauge was first used for model cars made of rectilinear and circular parts, it was the origin of the European scale for cast or injection moulded model cars.

MOROP's specification of scale for European 0 does not alter the series of cars in scale , as it has the widest distribution in the world.

In America, a series of cars was developed from at first cast metal and later styrene models "promos" offered at new-car dealerships to drum up interest.

The firm Monogram , and later Tamiya , first produced them in a scale derived from the Architect's scale: scale , while the firms AMT , Jo-Han , and Revell chose the scale of Monogram later switched to this scale after the firm was purchased by Revell.

Some cars are also made in scale , and rolling toys are often made on the scale scale. The smaller scales are usually die-cast cars and not the in the class as model cars.

Except in rare occasions, Johnny Lightning and Ertl-made die-cast cars were sold as kits for buyers to assemble.

Model cars are also used in car design. A model construction vehicle or engineering vehicle is a scale model or die-cast toy that represents a construction vehicle such as a bulldozer , excavator , crane , concrete pump , backhoe , etc.

Construction vehicle models are almost always made in scale , particularly because the cranes at this scale are often three to four feet tall when extended and larger scales would be unsuited for display on a desk or table.

These models are popular as children's toys in Germany. In the US they are commonly sold as promotional models for new construction equipment, commissioned by the manufacturer of the prototype real-world equipment.

The major manufacturers in Germany are Conrad and NZG, with some competition from Chinese firms that have been entering the market. Model trains come in a variety of scales, from on the large end and T scale on the small.

Each scale has its own strengths and weaknesses, and fills a different niche in the hobby. The largest models are as much as 3 meters 9.

The most popular size is HO scale and second is N scale Model railways originally used the term gauge , which refers to the distance between the rails , just as full-size railways do.

Although model railways were also built to different gauges, "standard gauge" in scale railroads is 4' 8. Therefore, a model railway reduces that standard to scale.

Now it is more typical to refer to the scale of the model, and the term scale has replaced "gauge" in most usages. This is despite considerable confusion between countries as to the definition of 0 scale and N scale.

Considerable confusion often arises when referring to "scale" and "gauge", especially as the words are sometimes used interchangeably. The word "scale" refers to the proportional size of the model; the word "gauge" applies to the measurement between the inside faces of the rails.

To highlight this difference, consider the various gauges used in HO scale; A gauge of It is completely incorrect to refer to the mainstream scales as "HO gauge", "N gauge" or "Z gauge".

The most popular scale to go with a given gauge was often derived at by the following roundabout process. German artisans would take strips of metal of standard metric size to make things to blueprints whose dimensions were in inches: hence "4 mm to the foot" yields the The American version continues a dollhouse scale of It is sometimes called "quarter-gauge", as in "one-quarter-inch to the foot".

Smaller live steam gauges do exist, but as the scale gets smaller, pulling power decreases. Japanese firms have marketed toys and models of what are often called mecha , nimble humanoid fighting robots.

The robots, which appear in animated shows anime , are often depicted at a size between m in height, and so scales of and are common for these subjects, though other scales such as are commonly used for robots and related subjects of different size.

The most prolific manufacturer of mecha models is Bandai , whose Gundam kit lines were a strong influence in the genre in the s.

Even today, Gundam kits are the most numerous in the mecha modeling genre, usually with dozens of new releases every year. The features of modern Gundam kits, such as color molding and snap-fit construction, have become the standard expectations for other mecha model kits.

Due to the fantasy nature of most anime robots, and the necessary simplicity of cel-animated designs, mecha models lend themselves well to stylized work, improvisations, and simple scratchbuilds.

One of Gundam 's contributions to the genre was the use of a gritty wartime backstory as a part of the fantasy, and so it is almost equally fashionable to build the robots in a weathered, beaten style, as would often be expected for AFV kits as to build them in a more stylish, pristine manner.

Model rocket kits began as a development of model aircraft kits, yet the scale of [V. Scales and are used.

There are some rockets of scales , , and , but Russian firms put their large rockets in Heller SA offers some models in the scale of Science fiction space ships are heavily popular in the modeling community.

Models based on ships from such franchises as Star Trek , Star Wars , and Battlestar Galactica are regularly sold and created in scales ranging from for fighters and smaller ships to , , and for most main franchise ships, and up to for the larger Star Wars ships for especially objects like the Death Stars and Super Star Destroyers , even smaller scales are used.

Finemolds in Japan have recently released a series of high quality injection molded Star Wars kits in , and this range is supplemented by resin kits from Fantastic Plastic.

Scale models of people and animals are found in a wide variety of venues, and may be either single-piece objects or kits that must be assembled, usually depending on the purpose of the model.

For instance, models of people as well as both domestic and wild animals are often produced for display in model cities or railroads to provide a measure of detail or realism, and scaled relative to the trains, buildings, and other accessories of a certain line of models.

If a line of trains or buildings does not feature models of living creatures, those who build the models often buy these items separately from another line so they can feature people or animals.

In other cases, scale model lines feature living creatures exclusively, often focusing on educational interests. Models of living creatures requiring assembly are not as common as single-piece units, but certainly not unheard of.

One of the most prolific kinds of kits requiring assembly that feature living creatures are models of human and animal skeletons.

Like their single-piece counterparts, such kits are often touted as being educational activities. Skeleton kits often have unique features such as glow-in-the-dark pieces or attachable internal organs.

Again, dinosaurs are a popular subject for such models. There are also garage kits , which are often figures of anime characters in multiple parts that require assembly.

In the first half of the 20th century, navies used hand-made models of warships for identification and instruction in a variety of scales.

Die Beliebtheit der optischen Vorbildfunktion gesellschaftlich hoch angesehener Persönlichkeiten ist weltweit bis in die Frühzeit der Menschheitsgeschichte Chinese sex massage videos und betrifft nicht nur Frauen, sondern auch Männer, Kinder und sogar Tiere. Eine klassische Modelagentur baut ihren Schützling auf Nude anime girls bietet dem jungen Model die Gelegenheit, sich zu entwickeln. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Kategorien : Formbehälter Küchengerät Archäologischer Fachbegriff. Man kann davon ausgehen, dass insbesondere komplexe Verhaltensketten im sozialen Umfeld durch Wikipedia models zustande kommen. Heutige Backmodel werden gepresst und sind nur noch selten handgeschnitzt. Ein Modell ist ein vereinfachtes Abbild der Wirklichkeit. Referenzmodelle werden beispielsweise für Porno de lo mejor Konzeption Loads of cum in pussy ComputerarchitekturenNetzwerkprotokolleAnwendungssystemeDatenhaltungssysteme und Portale herangezogen. Ist er nicht dazu bereit oder nicht in der Lage, mangelt es ihm nach allgemeinem Verständnis an Glaubwürdigkeit. Die Anpassungsfähigkeit des Menschen an kognitiv unterschiedlich anspruchsvolle Aufgaben wird im Drei-Ebenen-Modell nach Rasmussen nachgebildet. Ein Modell muss in der Lage sein, eine Gilligans island porn Zeit regungslos zu verharren und sich so der Kunst Tsr66 Lehre und Werkentwicklung zur Verfügung zu stellen. Der Model bzw. Die Vereinfachung kann an sinnlich, vor allem optisch wahrnehmbaren Gegenständen oder in Theorien vorgenommen werden. Zusätzlich werden Demonstrationsmodelle als vereinfachte Abbilder z. Im Penegrande der Abstraktion mit Methoden der Idealisierung Xxx rated sex scene. Frankreich als Agentur provision AP erhalten. Die Beliebtheit der optischen Vorbildfunktion gesellschaftlich hoch angesehener Persönlichkeiten ist weltweit bis in die Frühzeit der Menschheitsgeschichte belegt und China uncencored nicht nur Frauen, sondern auch Männer, Kinder und sogar Tiere. Betreiber von Internetseiten können Vieler prono bis zu einem Jahr Gefängnis und einer Geldstrafe von bis zu

Wikipedia Models Video

Accelerated failure time model - Wikipedia audio article

Model buildings are commonly made from plastic, foam, balsa wood or paper. Card models are published in the form of a book, and some models are manufactured like 3-D puzzles.

Professionally, building models are used by architects and salesmen. Architecture firms usually employ model makers or contract model making firms to make models of projects to sell their designs to builders and investors.

These models are traditionally hand-made, but advances in technology have turned the industry into a very high tech process than can involve Class IV laser cutters , five-axis CNC machines as well as rapid prototyping or 3D printing.

Typical scales are , , , , , , , etc. Typically found in scale and also called model house, model home or display house, this type of model is usually found in stately homes or specially designed houses.

Sometimes this kind of model is commissioned to mark a special date like an anniversary or the completion of the architecture, or these models might be used by salesmen selling homes in a new neighborhood.

Typically found in scale , most manufacturers of commercial vehicles and heavy equipment commission scale models made of die-cast metal as promotional items to give to prospective customers.

These are also popular children's toys and collectibles. Corgi also makes some models, as well as Dutch maker Tekno. Trucks are also found as diecast models in scale and injection moulded kits and children's toys in scale.

Recently some manufacturers have appeared in scale like Code 3. Although the British scale for 0 gauge was first used for model cars made of rectilinear and circular parts, it was the origin of the European scale for cast or injection moulded model cars.

MOROP's specification of scale for European 0 does not alter the series of cars in scale , as it has the widest distribution in the world.

In America, a series of cars was developed from at first cast metal and later styrene models "promos" offered at new-car dealerships to drum up interest.

The firm Monogram , and later Tamiya , first produced them in a scale derived from the Architect's scale: scale , while the firms AMT , Jo-Han , and Revell chose the scale of Monogram later switched to this scale after the firm was purchased by Revell.

Some cars are also made in scale , and rolling toys are often made on the scale scale. The smaller scales are usually die-cast cars and not the in the class as model cars.

Except in rare occasions, Johnny Lightning and Ertl-made die-cast cars were sold as kits for buyers to assemble. Model cars are also used in car design.

A model construction vehicle or engineering vehicle is a scale model or die-cast toy that represents a construction vehicle such as a bulldozer , excavator , crane , concrete pump , backhoe , etc.

Construction vehicle models are almost always made in scale , particularly because the cranes at this scale are often three to four feet tall when extended and larger scales would be unsuited for display on a desk or table.

These models are popular as children's toys in Germany. In the US they are commonly sold as promotional models for new construction equipment, commissioned by the manufacturer of the prototype real-world equipment.

The major manufacturers in Germany are Conrad and NZG, with some competition from Chinese firms that have been entering the market.

Model trains come in a variety of scales, from on the large end and T scale on the small. Each scale has its own strengths and weaknesses, and fills a different niche in the hobby.

The largest models are as much as 3 meters 9. The most popular size is HO scale and second is N scale Model railways originally used the term gauge , which refers to the distance between the rails , just as full-size railways do.

Although model railways were also built to different gauges, "standard gauge" in scale railroads is 4' 8. Therefore, a model railway reduces that standard to scale.

Now it is more typical to refer to the scale of the model, and the term scale has replaced "gauge" in most usages.

This is despite considerable confusion between countries as to the definition of 0 scale and N scale. Considerable confusion often arises when referring to "scale" and "gauge", especially as the words are sometimes used interchangeably.

The word "scale" refers to the proportional size of the model; the word "gauge" applies to the measurement between the inside faces of the rails.

To highlight this difference, consider the various gauges used in HO scale; A gauge of It is completely incorrect to refer to the mainstream scales as "HO gauge", "N gauge" or "Z gauge".

The most popular scale to go with a given gauge was often derived at by the following roundabout process.

German artisans would take strips of metal of standard metric size to make things to blueprints whose dimensions were in inches: hence "4 mm to the foot" yields the The American version continues a dollhouse scale of It is sometimes called "quarter-gauge", as in "one-quarter-inch to the foot".

Smaller live steam gauges do exist, but as the scale gets smaller, pulling power decreases. Japanese firms have marketed toys and models of what are often called mecha , nimble humanoid fighting robots.

The robots, which appear in animated shows anime , are often depicted at a size between m in height, and so scales of and are common for these subjects, though other scales such as are commonly used for robots and related subjects of different size.

The most prolific manufacturer of mecha models is Bandai , whose Gundam kit lines were a strong influence in the genre in the s. Even today, Gundam kits are the most numerous in the mecha modeling genre, usually with dozens of new releases every year.

The features of modern Gundam kits, such as color molding and snap-fit construction, have become the standard expectations for other mecha model kits.

Due to the fantasy nature of most anime robots, and the necessary simplicity of cel-animated designs, mecha models lend themselves well to stylized work, improvisations, and simple scratchbuilds.

One of Gundam 's contributions to the genre was the use of a gritty wartime backstory as a part of the fantasy, and so it is almost equally fashionable to build the robots in a weathered, beaten style, as would often be expected for AFV kits as to build them in a more stylish, pristine manner.

Model rocket kits began as a development of model aircraft kits, yet the scale of [V. Scales and are used.

There are some rockets of scales , , and , but Russian firms put their large rockets in Heller SA offers some models in the scale of Science fiction space ships are heavily popular in the modeling community.

Models based on ships from such franchises as Star Trek , Star Wars , and Battlestar Galactica are regularly sold and created in scales ranging from for fighters and smaller ships to , , and for most main franchise ships, and up to for the larger Star Wars ships for especially objects like the Death Stars and Super Star Destroyers , even smaller scales are used.

Finemolds in Japan have recently released a series of high quality injection molded Star Wars kits in , and this range is supplemented by resin kits from Fantastic Plastic.

Scale models of people and animals are found in a wide variety of venues, and may be either single-piece objects or kits that must be assembled, usually depending on the purpose of the model.

For instance, models of people as well as both domestic and wild animals are often produced for display in model cities or railroads to provide a measure of detail or realism, and scaled relative to the trains, buildings, and other accessories of a certain line of models.

If a line of trains or buildings does not feature models of living creatures, those who build the models often buy these items separately from another line so they can feature people or animals.

In other cases, scale model lines feature living creatures exclusively, often focusing on educational interests.

Models of living creatures requiring assembly are not as common as single-piece units, but certainly not unheard of.

One of the most prolific kinds of kits requiring assembly that feature living creatures are models of human and animal skeletons.

Like their single-piece counterparts, such kits are often touted as being educational activities. Skeleton kits often have unique features such as glow-in-the-dark pieces or attachable internal organs.

Again, dinosaurs are a popular subject for such models. There are also garage kits , which are often figures of anime characters in multiple parts that require assembly.

In the first half of the 20th century, navies used hand-made models of warships for identification and instruction in a variety of scales.

That of was called "teacher scale. Some, made in Britain , were labelled "1 inch to feet", which would be scale, but aren't necessarily accurate.

Michele Morciano says small scale ship models were produced in about linked to the wargaming rules and other publications of Fred T.

The company that standardised on was Bassett-Lowke in The British Admiralty subsequently contracted with Bassett-Lowke and other companies and individual craftsmen to produce large numbers of recognition models, to this scale, in — Just before the Second World War, the American naval historian and science fiction author Fletcher Pratt published a book on naval wargaming as could be done by civilians using ship models cut off at the waterline to be moved on the floors of basketball courts and similar locales.

The scale he used was non-standard reported as , and may have been influenced by toy ships then available, but as the hobby progressed, and other rule sets came into use, it was progressively supplemented by the series , , and In Britain, became popular and these models also have come into use in the USA.

As the knot is based on this mile and a minute hour, this was quite handy. After the war, firms emerged to produce models from the same white metal used to make toy soldiers.

Lines Bros. Ltd , a British firm, offered a tremendously wide range of waterline merchant and naval ships as well as dockyard equipment in the scale which were die-cast in Zamak.

In the US, at least one manufacturer, of the wartime recognition models, Comet, made them available for the civilian market postwar, which also drove the change to this scale.

In addition, continental European manufacturers and European ship book publishers had adopted the drawing scale because of its similar convenience in size for both models and comparison drawings in books.

A prestige scale for boats , comparable to that of for fighter planes, is , producing huge models, but there are very few kits marketed in this scale.

There are now several clubs around the world for those who choose to scratch-build radio-controlled model ships and submarines in , which is often done because of the compatibility with naval aircraft kits.

For the smaller ships, plank-on-frame or other wood construction kits are offered in the traditional shipyard scales of , , or half of In injection-molded plastic kits, Airfix makes full-hull models in the scale the Royal Navy has used to compare the relative sizes of ships: Revell makes some kits to half the scale of the US Army standard: Some American and foreign firms have made models in a proportion from the Engineer's scale: "one-sixtieth-of-an-inch-to-the-foot", or Many research workers, hydraulics specialists and engineers have used scale models for over a century, in particular in towing tanks.

Manned models are small scale models that can carry and be handled by at least one person on an open expanse of water. They must behave just like real ships, giving the shiphandler the same sensations.

Physical conditions such as wind, currents, waves, water depths, channels, and berths must be reproduced realistically. Manned models are used for research e.

They are usually at scale. Just before the 20th century, the British historian and science fiction author H.

Wells published a book, Little Wars , on how to play at battles in miniature. His fighting system employed spring-loaded model guns that shot matchsticks.

This use of physical mechanisms was echoed in the later games of Fred Jane, whose rules required throwing darts at ship silhouettes; his collection of data on the world's fleets was later published and became renowned.

Dice have largely replaced this toy mayhem for consumers. For over a century, toy soldiers were made of white metal , a lead-based alloy, often in architect's scale-based ratios in the English-speaking countries, and called tin soldiers.

After the Second World War, such toys were on the market for children but now made of a safe plastic softer than styrene.

American children called these "army men". Many sets were made in the new scale of A few styrene model kits of land equipment were offered in this and in and scales.

However, these were swept away by the number of kits in the scale of Those who continued to develop miniature wargaming preferred smaller scale models, the soldiers still made of soft plastic.

Airfix particularly wanted people to buy scale soldiers and tanks to go with "00" gauge train equipment.

Roco offered scale styrene military vehicles to go with "HO" gauge model houses. However, although there is no scale model railroad, more toy soldiers are now offered in this scale because it is the same as the popular aircraft scale.

The number of fighting vehicles in this scale is also increasing, although the number of auxiliary vehicles available is far fewer than in scale.

Armies use smaller scales still. The US Army specifies models of the scale for its sand table wargaming.

There are metal ground vehicles and helicopters in this scale, which is a near "one-quarter-inch-to-six-feet" scale.

The continental powers of NATO have developed the similar scale of , even though metric standardizers really don't like any divisors other than factors of 10, 5, and 2, so maps are not commonly offered in Europe in scales with a "3" in the denominator.

Firms that produce these make small production lots of white metal. Alternatively to the commercial models, some modelers also tend to use scraps to achieve home-made warfare models.

While it doesn't always involve wargaming, some modelers insert realistic procedures, enabling a certain realism such as firing guns or shell deflection on small scale models.

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